Do You Know How The UK Coins Are Made And What Are They Made of?

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The processes involved in producing a coin can be broken down into three different sections: making the blanks, making the dies and striking the coins.

Making the blanks

Depending on the alloy required, the appropriate metals are melted in the necessary proportions in a furnace. The metal is then extracted from the furnace in the form of a continuous strip, which is cut to produce coils weighing up to 2.8 tonnes. The strip is passed through powerful rolling mills to reduce it to the thickness of a coin. Blank discs of metal are then punched from the strip in a blanking press at a rate of up to 10,000 a minute. Rolling metal under great pressure makes it hard so the blanks have to be softened, something which is achieved by heating them in an annealing furnace at up to 950°C.

Making the dies

Once a design has been approved, a plaster model is prepared at several times the diameter of the intended coin. The plaster model is scanned by a ruby-tipped probe which records the design as a digital file on a computer. Guided by this digital file, an engraving machine cuts the design into a piece of steel at the correct size of the coin. Known as a reduction punch, this piece of steel is then used to make the dies which will actually strike the coins.

Striking the coins

For the final stage of the process, the blanks are fed into a coining press containing a pair of dies. Applying a pressure of around 60 tonnes, the dies strike the blanks and turn them into coins at speeds of up to 850 a minute.

= 1 penny coin =

First Issued February 15, 1971

Diameter 20.3mm

Weight 3.56g

Thickness Bronze: 1.52mm. Copper-plated steel: 1.65mm

Composition Bronze (97pc copper, 2.5pc zinc, 0.5pc tin)

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= 2 pence coin =

First Issued February 15, 1971

Diameter 25.9mm

Weight 7.12g

Thickness Bronze: 1.85mm. Copper-plated steel: 2.03mm

Composition Bronze (97pc copper, 2.5pc zinc, 0.5pc tin)

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= 5 pence coin =

First Issued Smaller version in June 1990.

Diameter 18.0mm

Weight 3.25g

Thickness 1.7mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

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= 10 pence coin =

First Issued Smaller version in September 1992.

Diameter (since 1992) 24.5mm

Weight 6.5g

Thickness 1.85mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

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= 20 pence coin =

First Issued June 9, 1982

Diameter 21.4mm

Weight 5g

Thickness 1.7mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (84pc copper, 16c nickel)

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= 50 pence coin =

First Issued Smaller version introduced in September 1997. Diameter (since 1997) 27.3mm

Weight 8.0g

Thickness 1.78mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

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= 1 pound coin =

Issue Date April 21, 1983

Diameter 22.5mm

Weight 9.5g

Thickness 3.15mm

Composition Nickel-Brass (70pc copper, 5.5pc nickel, 24.5pc zinc)

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= 2 pound coin =

First Issued June 15, 1998

Diameter 28.4mm

Weight 12g

Thickness 2.5mm

Composition, Outer Nickel-Brass (76pc copper, 4pc nickel, 20pc zinc). Inner Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

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= 5 pound coin =

First Issued August 4, 1990. Previously crowns had a face value of 25p

Diameter 38.61mm

Weight 28.28g

Thickness 2.89mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

Collector versions have been struck in precious metals

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As an international manufacturer and supplier for copper sheet and bronze sheet, Shanghai Metal Corporation produces slitting, edging, and oscillates winding to fit your specific copper requirements. To find out more, please visit our Website or send your inquiry here. Our English speaking personnel will be more than pleased to help you. Follow us on  LinkedInTwitter, FacebookInstagram and don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel. Or you could try our new mobile app by scanning our QR code.

Sources: Royal Mint, The Telegraph, museumvictoria.com.au

William P.//SMC Editor

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Architectural Triumphs With Galvanized Steel

Corrugated and sheet metals such as galvanized steel have come a long way in the architectural and construction communities from when they were simply a strong and effective material used as roofing. It has come to the point now where they can be the feature of a home or building and used both inside and out.

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This idea of galvanized steel as a universal building material is shown below where the house features has used it for both a roofing material and as exterior wall cladding. This industrial appearing material, when combined with the natural aesthetic of wood creates a juxtaposition between man and nature, especially given the lush backdrop of rural Australia.

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From an interior perspective there is an increasing trend to use both corrugated, flat and shaped galvanized steel for both ceilings and walls. The remarkable example below featured in the master bedroom of  a modern home show how the metallic surface of galvanized steel can add a touch of modernity to a design, with the corrugated sheeting offering a texture rarely seen in the interior of a home.

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The versatility of this material is undeniable, with designers stretching their imagination to previously-thought impossible lengths. As is witnessed in the examples below; the ability to bend, shape, curve and erect this material at extreme pitches can lead to some outstanding design possibilities. The home on the left features a nearly 100% external composition of pre-painted corrugated galvanized steel proving the residents with high bush-fire protection, energy efficiency as well as a remarkable aesthetic!

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In contrast to these curves seen above the design featured below presents an opposing dynamic of this material. With its sheer pitched sides, long straight lengths and intense angles it is hard not to appreciate the capabilities this material offers to architects and the remarkable results that are left for the eye to enjoy.

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Shanghai Metal Corporation is a world leader in innovative metal manufacture and will strive to meet all of your building and design specifications. To find out more, please visit our Website or send your inquiry here. Our English speaking personnel will be more than pleased to help you. Follow us on  LinkedInTwitter, FacebookInstagram and don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel. Or you could try our new mobile app by scanning our QR code.

Sources: Ral Homes, Colorbond, ArchiExpo & Freshome

Dominick F.//SMC Editor

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From A to Zinc; A Precarious Metal Industry

A little known but highly important metal used in a range of products is Zinc. Zinc has an array of applications, from it’s possibly most well known use in sunscreen all the way to outdoor furniture, tools, aircraft, electric vehicles and garage doors.

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Zinc is a key mineral used in the galvanizing of Steel and is also used in SMCs Galvalume roof sheeting and coil with aluminum at a ratio of 55/45. This gives the product extreme protective qualities such as rust resistance through two mechanisms. Firstly it physically acts as a protective coating, which forms a barrier so that water cannot reach the weaker steel. Secondly, due to the chemical properties of Zinc, a reaction occurs which is called a ‘Sacrificial anode’ this has the effect of even if this protective coating is scratched the exposed steel will still be protected by the remaining zinc.

Currently the global supply of Zinc is in a precarious position. Prices have been steadily increasing, with investors making a significant amount of money through trading with prices having risen by more than 17% this year on the back of high demand with  no foreseeable opening of new mines for at least two years, perhaps more. This has lead many analysts to believe that the price could rise a further 15% before the end of the year. The mine pictures below is one of the largest in Canada in is due to close this year.

XTRATA ZINC - Brunswick Mine

To discuss some of our Zinc containing products such as Galvanized Steel or Galvalume coil/roofing material please do not hesitate to contact us though our website Here. You can read this and other mineral and metal related posts on our WordPress blog. For more updates on this and other exciting developments follow us on FacebookTwitter & Linkedin. Or by using your smart device, scan the QR code below!

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Dominick F.//SMC Editor

Sources: Mining.comCecilia Jamasmie, Naveen Joshi,

Rolling Steel Coil to Make Sheets

The process of getting galvanized steel from its prepared form (coiled and wrapper up) is completed with the aid of a roller. This device allows the user to roll the galvanized sheets into any number of profiles depending on the intended purpose. The practice of rolling metals has been around since 1590, but really took off in approximately 1850.

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Of the most well know of these purposes if for the use in metal roofing. For this application corrugations are rolled into the galvanized steel to match the environment of the area. For example the most typical corrugation seen is the circular wavy corrugation which performs best when there is some degree of pitch to the roof, whilst a flatter and wider pan may be used when the roof has less of a degree of slant. This wider pan has more surface area to transport water off the roof.

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Corrugations for external use, such as the cladding of external and internal walls or ceilings may use what is referred to as a mini-orb (smaller corrugation) so as to provide a particular aesthetic, especially when emphasis is put on the internal. Furthermore galvanized steel coil can be pre painted to provide a particular color to meet the end users specification; this paint is baked on and provides an extra layer of protection from the elements.

<> on January 26, 2010 in Eisenhuttenstadt, Germany.

Shanghai Metal Corporation, being one of the world’s leading suppliers and manufacturers of metal products offers galvanized steel in a multitude of forms that can be used to satisfy the applications mentioned above. These include piping, galvanized steel coils, strips, sheets, plates, wire, pre-painted steel, roofing material (in a number of profiles) as well as steel grating. We also stock and supply coil rollers so you can do it yourself or have the sheets repainted and cut by us.

To find out more about these products or to discuss customization and individual requirements please visit our website Here. For more updates on this and other exciting developments follow us on FacebookTwitter & Linkedin. Or by using your smart device, scan the QR code below!

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Dominick F.//SMC Editor

Sources: Drexmet; Union Corrugating; Galvanizing Association of Australia; Wikipedia; Gulf Coast SteelVostelpine

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Mining Industry Update: Peak Gold to Be Reached

News just out of Toronto is the reporting that peak Gold will be reached either at the end of this year or in 2015. The CEO of the world’s largest gold mining company, Goldcorp; Chuck Jeannes has said that production will start to decline given that the easiest to access of global gold deposits dry up and no new technological break-through have been reached to allow miners to tap into supplies.gold 2

So what does this mean for the industry, traders and the general public? Well first and foremost the price of gold is going to remain strong as supply decreases and traders opt to buy more gold given the positive predictions on price. For the general public who already hold gold either in Jewelry, commodity or in bar form their net worth will be on the rise. As has already been seen in many developed economies, the proliferation of gold buyers, pawnshops and the like has markedly increased to reflect these rising prices. This trend is shown on the graph below.

gold 3

As for those who don’t currently have any gold of their own it would appear that it will become more and more difficult to enter this market as prices continue to rise. We may begin to see an increase in prospecting, especially at less viable locations given that it will now become more economic for companies to try to tap into previously disregarded reserves.

Shanghai Metal Corporation (SMC) is deeply involved in the metal processing industry, being a major global supplier and manufacturer of metal products, building systems, containers and machinery. If you have any requirements in these areas feel free to contact us through our website, here.

Furthermore to continue reading industry and product related articles you can follow us on FacebookWordPress, Tumblr, Twitter & Linkedin. Or by using your smart device, scan the QR code below!

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Dominick F.//SMC Editor

Sources; SNL Mines & Metal; Els, F; King of Gold buyers; firstpeoples.org

Are There Enough Metal Buckets for the Ice Bucket Challenge?

The ALS Association’s viral marketing campaign for raising funds to to fight the ALS disease has gone mainstream in a really short time. The association has already received over $31 million in donations. The Ice Bucket Challenge (#icebucketchallenge) has already been taken by celebrities such as the WWE wrestler Triple H, actors Dwayne ”the Rock’ Johnson and Jean-Claude van Damme, singers Jennifer Lopez and Shakira, a venture capitalist Daymond John and footballers Lionel Messi, Cristiano Ronaldo and Gerard Piqué just to name but a few.

The challenge involves people getting doused with buckets of ice water on video, posting that video to social media, then nominating others to do the same. This effort is there to raise the awareness of the ALS disease.  People can either accept the challenge or make a donation to an ALS Charity of their choice, or do both.

ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their death. When the motor neurons die, the ability of the brain to initiate and control muscle movement is lost. With voluntary muscle action progressively affected, patients in the later stages of the disease may become totally paralyzed.

Since being founded in 1985, the ALS Association’s mission has been to do and fund global research on ALS disease and to cooperate with government, academia, industry and other nonprofit organizations. The association has funded over $99 million in research and clinical management projects.

 

Since the world is going crazy about the phenomenon, metal bucket manufacturers are forced to make more buckets. Galvanized steel is one of the best materials because steel keeps the ice chilled longer than plastic, and the galvanized coating protects the surface from corrosion.

Shanghai Metal Corporation is also a major supplier of galvanized steel that suits perfectly for building cold ice shower buckets. To know more about our galvanized steel, please visit our website. Please also follow us on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn. You can also download our new mobile application by scanning the QR code below.

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Tuomas P. // SMC Editor

Read more about the ALS Association and consider donating for good cause.

Sources: the ALS Association, USA Today, Youtube

Scientists now able to create indestructible aircrafts

MIT has played home to a number of off-the-wall discoveries, and once more a recent discovery of the self-healing properties of metal has thrown the researchers there for a loop. Initially thought as a mistake,  MIT researchers unexpectedly found out that putting a cracked piece of metal under tension — that is, exerting a force that would be expected to pull it apart — has the reverse effect, causing the crack to close and its edges to fuse together.

It happened due to grain boundaries interaction with cracks in the crystalline microstructure of a metal — in this case nickel, which is the basis for “superalloys” used in extreme environments, such as in deep-sea oil wells. The surprising finding could lead to self-healing materials that repair incipient damage before it has a chance to spread. The results were published in the journal Physical Review Letters in a paper by graduate student Guoqiang Xu and professor of materials science and engineering Michael Demkowicz.

Their experiment wasn’t just saying that metal can sometimes heal itself to some small extent. Instead, their findings suggested that there is a mechanism through which metal can actually heal its cracks under any applied stress, slow the progression of this type of failure, Demkowicz says. Such failures can be “life-limiting situations for a lot of materials,” Demkowicz says, including materials used in aircraft, oil wells, and other critical industrial applications. Metal fatigue, for example — which can result from an accumulation of nanoscale cracks over time — “is probably the most common failure mode” for structural metals in general, he says.

Shanghai Metal Corporation offers nickel foil and strip varying fittings and sizes. SMC also produces nickel silver strips, nickel copper tube widely used in shipbuilding, petrochemical, electronics, instrumentation, medical devices, daily necessities, handicrafts and other fields, and is an important resistance and thermocouple alloys. To find out more, please visit our Website or send your inquiry here. Our English speaking personnel will be more than pleased to help you. Follow us on  LinkedInTwitter, FacebookInstagram and don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel. Or you could try our new mobile app by scanning our QR code.

Source: MIT, dvice.com, engineering.com

Camilla G.//SMC Editor

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