TYPES OF ARCH BRIDGES

The origins of the use of arches as a structural form in buildings can be traced back to antiquity (Van Beek, 1987). In trying to arrive at a suitable definition for an arch we may look no further than Hooke’s anagram of 1675 which stated ‘Ut pendet continuum flexile, sic stab at continuum rigidum inversum’ – ‘as hangs the flexible line, so but inverted will stand the rigid arch’. This suggests that any given loading to a flexible cable if frozen and inverted will provide a purely compressive structure in equilibrium with the applied load. Clearly, any slight variation in the loading will result in a moment being induced in the arch. It is arriving at appropriate proportions of arch thickness to accommodate the range of eccentricities of the thrust line that is the challenge to the bridge engineer.

Indeed, even in the Middle Ages it was valued that brick work curves carried on basically as gravity structures, for which geometry and extent directed tasteful request and dependability. Compressive quality could be depended upon whilst rigidity proved unable. Based upon experience, numerous exact connections between the range and curve thickness were created and connected effectively to deliver numerous exquisite structures all through Europe. The development of the railroad and waterway frameworks prompted a blast of extension building.

Brickwork curves turned out to be progressively well known. With the development of the Coalbrookdal Bridge (1780) another period of curve scaffold development started. Before the end of the nineteenth century cast iron, fashioned iron lastly steel turned out to be progressively prominent; just to be tested by ferro bond (strengthened cement) when the new century rolled over.

During the nineteenth century analytical technique developed apace. In particular, Castigliano (1879) developed strain energy theorems which could be applied to arches provided they remained elastic. This condition could be satisfied provided the line of thrust lay within the middle third, thus ensuring that no tensile stresses were induced.The requirement to avoid tensile stresses only applied to masonry and cast iron; it did not apply to steel or reinforced concrete as these materials were capable of resisting tensile stresses.

Types of arch bridge

There are many different types and arrangements of arch bridges. A deck arch is one where the bridge deck which includes the structure that directly supports the traffic loads is located above the crown of the arch. The deck arch is also known as a true or perfect arch. A through-arch is one where the bridge deck is located at the spring line of the arch. A half-through arch is where the bridge deck is located at an elevation between a deck arch and a through arch. A further classification refers to the articulation of the arch. A fixed arch implies no rotation possible at the supports, A and B. A fixed arch is indeterminate to the third degree. A three-hinged arch that allows rotation at A, B, and C is statically determinate. A two-hinged arch allows rotation at A and B and is indeterminate to one degree.

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A tied arch and is one where the reactive horizontal forces acting on the arch ribs are supplied by a tension tie at deck level of a through or half-through arch.

 

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The tension tie is usually a steel plate girder or a steel box girder and, depending on its stiffness, is capable of carrying a portion of the live loads. A weak tie girder, however, requires a deep arch rib and a thin arch rib requires a stiff deep tie girder. Since they are dependent on each other, it is possible to optimize the size of each according to the goal established for aesthetics and/or cost.

While most through or half-through arch bridges are constructed with two planes of vertical arch ribs there have been a few constructed with only one rib with the roadways cantilevered on each side of the rib. Hangers usually consist of wire ropes or rolled sections. The hangers are usually vertical but truss like diagonal hangers have also been used. Diagonal hangers result in smaller deflections and a reduction in the bending moments in the arch rib and deck

There have also been arch bridges constructed with the arch ribs tilted so they can be connected at the crown. This is done for aesthetic reasons but it does add to the lateral stiffness of the arch bridge and could result in reduced bracing requirements.

Source:http://freeit.free.fr/Bridge%20Engineering%20HandBook/ch17.pdf

Below the Humber Bay Arch Bridge, Toronto Ontario

Shanghai Metal Corporation supply various steel bridges & steel bridge materials. Check our website if you’re interested other construction materials. You can also send us your inquiry, we have English-speaking that will help you to find the best product for you. Don’t forget to follow us on social media and download an application by scanning brand new designed QR code below.

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The Evolution of Bridge

The bridge is used to provide a way over an obstacle, such as water, valley or road. Its size differs according to its destination, it can be used to cross a river or even from one city to another. In some cases, it may symbolize an important point in your life. According to Freud, a bridge may symbolize any sort of transition in the dreamer’s life, for example, moving to a foreign country, changing from a job to another, etc. In this article, we are going to focus about the physical-real-life bridge. Let us see how bridges have evolved throughout the human history and how ancient bridges show us that structure theory is not the only vital factor in the realization of building construction.

We can divide the evolution of bridge technology into 2 eras :

1. The Arch Era

The Arch Era goes from 2000 BC until the end if the 18th century. Arc bridges were well developed by the  Romans and were for the majority stone arches. The Viaduct in Segovia, for example, is over 2000 years old and is still intact until today.

Roman Viaduct in Segovia

We can also find another example of ancient stone bridge in China. The elegant Zhao Zhou Bridge were built around 600 AD and can still be used until today.

Zhao Zhou Bridge

Another famous ancient bridge still in use today is the Siosepol Bridge in Iran, built during the Safavid Dynasty (around 16th Century).

Siosepol Bridge

These bridges were built before the appearance of structural theory. The ancestors of engineer didn’t use theory to guide their design. The type of  bridge structure they used (still used until today) was intuitive and their construction materials were readily available in nature. Stone arches have a very wonderful structures and  blend very well into the natural landscape.

2. The Contemporary Era

This modern era goes from the 19th Century until today. The construction of bridge changed after the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century, with the introduction of steel.

One of the most spectacular early bridge is the Firth of Fourth Bridge in London, built during the end of the 19th Century. Some may not be fond of its structures but it has been successfully serving its objective until now.


Firth of Fourth Bridge

Other steel bridges were built around the same time in the United States, such as, the St. Louis Bridge and the Brooklyn Bridge

The improvement of wire technology with steel allowed  long span suspension bridges possible. Research in aerodynamics offered a way to design bridges with wind resistant. Some early examples of this type of bridge are the Golden Gate Bridge and the George Washington Bridge. One of the longest one today is the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge.


Akashi Kaikyo Bridge

Another type of Contemporary Era bridge is the cable-stayed bridge. Attempts were not successful before high strength steel was available. Since 1970, many long cable-stayed bridge were completed around the world, such as The Stromsund Bridge in Sweden and the Normandy Bridge in France. One of the newest is the Stonecutters Bridge in Hong Kong, completed in 2009.


Stonecutters Bridge

As we can see from these examples, the availability of construction materials is a dominant factor in the evolution of bridge (stone, steel,…). Bridges are one of the most important infrastructure program in China. Shanghai Metal Corporation supply various steel bridges & steel bridge materials. Check our website if you’re interested other construction materials. You can also send us your inquiry, we have English-speaking that will help you to find the best product for you. Don’t forget to follow us on social media and download an application by scanning QR code below.

Read this article for a more detailed information about the evolution of bridge technology.

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Pictures from Google image.

Ayu P.//SMC editor

Copper tubing furniture

Have you always wanted to own a special piece of furniture, sit on something really unique? Then you should have a look at following copper tube furniture! It is not only functional but also looks amazing.

TJ Volonis, a talented Brooklyn artist/designer, makes sculptures and furniture just out of copper tubes and pipes. His creative business started quite unintentionally. His roommate moved out and left him a rickety coffee table. He didn’t have money that time so he decided to knock the legs off and use copper tubes for building a new base. The same period of time he was volunteering for a benefit art auction , he bought materials from Home Depot, drafted and created a design and entered it under a pseudonym. It won the first place in its category, attracted attention of people so he was encouraged to continue with his art.

A lot of his inspiration comes from New York City and its industrial infrastructure. He likes looking at train tracks, bridges or plumbing through his artistic lens and beyond that utility he sees something beautiful. According to his words, copper has its own sense of expression.

TJ Volonis Freshome 9 How Copper Tubing Can Be Transformed Into Spectacular Furniture And Art

He left some of the copper tubes and pipes oxidize and it creates a very honey-brown color over time. He seals some of the piece with lacquer right away to preserve the scorch marks. He looks at copper tubing as a co-creator of his work.

Sculptural Copper Tubing Furniture and Art by TJ Volonis in main home furnishings art  Category

Shanghai Metal Corporation sells copper pipes and tubescopper products and other metal products. Don’t hesitate to visit our main website or send us inquiry. English speaking staff will guide you further. Download a new application by scanning QR code below or follow us on Social Media.

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Silvia M.//SMC Editor

Read more articles written by this author here.

Sources : coolthings.com, freshhome.com, design-milk.com, googleimages

Take a bike and let’s go to Peace Bridge

Bridges don’t have to be just boring old steel parts of your city that allow you to cross a river. It also can be unique experience with nice architecture around you so you would like to stop and enjoy the atmosphere.

Santiago Calatrava

One of these kinds of bridges is Peace Bridge that crosses the Bow river in Calgary. This bridge was designed by Santiago Calatrava, a Spanish neofuturistic architect and sculptor, who is known for his elegant structures combining structure with a touch of sculpturing. His bridge is a remarkable solution to a number of challenging design criteria. “It seems very simple at the first glance, but Peace Bridge is a very technical structure.”

The Peace Bridge is a red and white tubular structure, candy cane-colored footbridge that was finished in 2012. It has over 126-meter span and it reduces the environmental impact as there are no intermediary supports. This bridge is designed for pedestrians and cyclists so wide bridge’s deck provides a space for them on the both sides. It is covered in glass so it provides year-round safe passage for cyclists and pedestrians.

The Peace Bridge was honored in in the prestigious biennial National Steel Design Awards of Excellence that is given by Canadian Institute of Steel Construction.

Shanghai Metal Corporation offers customers wide range of steel products and took part on several steel projects. For more information visit our website or send us inquiry. English speaking staff will guide you further. Download a new application by scanning QR code below or follow us on social media.

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Silvia M.//SMC Editor

Read more articles written by this author here.

Credits : inhabitat.com, wikipedia.org, archdaily.com, googleimages

Mega Project: Kingdom Tower

Currently under construction in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is the soon to be Kingdom Tower, which once construction is complete will be, by far the tallest building in the world at over 1 Kilometer tall. With construction having started in 2013 and a scheduled 2019 completion date

The tower will feature a flagship Four Seasons Hotel and serviced apartments, A class office space as well as luxury condominiums and the world’s highest observatory. There will be an outdoor platform on the 157th floor for private use of the penthouse residents. The building will also contain a number of swimming pools throughout for use by the hotel and condos.

Pavillion

Putting this into perspective the current tallest building in the world is the Burj al-Kalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates which stands at 830 meters.  The illustration below compares the prospective Kingdom Tower with existing buildings as well as those currently under construction. This clearly shows the extreme of its height and makes it hard to believe that the owners originally wanted the tower to be 1 Mile high!

Contrast

The Kingdom Tower will cost a proposed $US1.25 Billion and will involve 500,000 cubic meters of concrete and 80,000 tons of steel, giving it the strength it needs to withstand winds and any potential natural disasters.

As a world leader in the Metals producing and supply industry Shanghai Metal Corporation stocks metals in a range of forms and can customize specifications to suite your requirements. To contact us please visit our website Here. For more updates on this and other exciting developments follow us on FacebookTwitter & Linkedin. Or by using your smart device, scan the QR code below!

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Dominick F.// Editor SMC

Sources: Wikipedia; SkyScrapers Center;

The Test of Time

A true testament to the durability and thus desirability of a material is the legacy of the structures and constructions that are left standing as time goes by. We know that the process of galvanization increases the ability of steel to withstand the nature forces of rust and corrosion bought on by water and the elements; let us take a look at the most notable of these structures;

Art-Fest-Ad

As with all structures maintenance is required to ensure the safety and longevity of the structure; however few materials, at this cost can boast up to and above thirty years of maintenance free use as is seen with galvanized steel. Pictured above is the Boca Channel Bridge, located in the Florida Keys. It is consistently exposed to the corrosive elements of the sea water, however over its life of 42years it has not required any maintenance due to the galvanization of the steel whereas other, non galvanized bridges in the same area have had to be completely replaced.

Golden_gate_bridge_at_dusk

This durability, despite the increased initial capital investment has been shown to save money over time as this maintenance or continual painting is not required, as would be the case with a non-galvanized steel construction. A prime example of this cost is the Goldengate Bridge in San Francisco, California (picture above), where 28 full time painters are required to constantly paint the bridge as its non-galvanized steel bears the brunt of nature and its original rivets are constantly being replaced with new galvanized ones.

Shanghai Metal Corporation offers galvanized steel in a multitude of forms that can be used to satisfy the applications mentioned above. These include piping, galvanized steel coils, strips, sheets, plates, wire, pre-painted steel, roofing material (in a number of profiles) as well as steel grating.

To find out more about these products or to discuss customization and individual requirements please visit our website Here. For more updates on this and other exciting developments follow us on Facebook, Twitter & Linkedin. Or by using your smart device, scan the QR code below!

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Dominick F.//SMC Editor

Sources: Steel Works, American Galvinizers Association, Golden Gate Bridge Org

Strange Things People Steal

Desperate times call for desperate measures. The aftermath of the world financial crisis has left some people thinking outside the box to get by. Despite the effort and penalty, a lot of these items don’t yield much in resale value, yet still remain widely stolen items.

Copper

Copper backgrounds

Bucking the trend, stolen copper is valuable as scrap because the metal is used for so many items—from fiber optics to plumbing to anything electrical.

“Copper prices have leveled since the recession, but they’re still high enough to have people steal it,” said Michael Gurka, managing director of Spectrum Asset Management, a Chicago investment firm.

Manhole Covers

manholecover

If history has shown us anything, it’s that thieves don’t mind being in a business with razor-thin profit margins. Manhole covers don’t fetch much on the black market, but it didn’t deter one criminal group in New York USA. More than 30 were stolen in one season to the dismay of maintenance workers and midnight strollers alike.

Fire Hydrant Caps

firehydrant

Hydrants are usually seen in picturesque scenes of hot days and water fights, but today the dark world of hydrant cap theft is being exposed. In California USA, more than 100 were stolen at a cost of $100 each to replace, so that was $10K no one planned on having to spend.

Bleachers

bleachers

These thieves in Pennsylvania and New York left standing room only crowds in its wake. Possibly just a rival school prank, these thieves have capitalized on the apparent new target in metal thievery.

Bridges

bridge

Thieves in the Czech Republic made off with an entire 10-ton bridge. Using forged paperwork, the crew convinced rail officials that the bridge was supposed to come down to make way for a new cycling route. If this crew could make a bridge disappear, it’s scary to think what they could achieve if they really applied themselves.

At Shanghai Metal Corporation we also realize the importance of these metals and manufacture value added copper products. As an ISO 14001 (International Quality Management System) Company and recipient of the “Star Enterprise Award,” Shanghai Metal Corporation prides itself on exceeding international standards of quality and reliability. We guarantee the best prices, quality support, and fast delivery. To find out more, please visit our Tumblr, WordPress, LinkedIn , Twitter , Facebook  and Instagram. Or you could try our new mobile app by scanning our QR code. Moreover, we sell directly from Alibaba , EC21 and Tradekey.

You can also read more articles by our team at SMC:

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Sources: News Discovery, CNBC.

Siobhan R.// SMC Editor

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