MoMA’s “Latin America in Construction: Architecture 1955-1980”

Today we are excited to bring you to New York into the famous Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). This famous museum has been important in developing and collecting modernist art and is often considered as one of the most influential museum of modern art in the world. You can discover various collections about architecture & design, drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, etc.

The Museum of Modern Art – New York. Photo from blog.artsnapper.com

Wondering what’s happening right now in MoMA? From March 29 through July 19 2015, the museum documents a dynamic period in Latin American architecture between 1955 and 1980 – Latin America in Construction: Architecture 1955-1980. In 1955, MoMA staged Latin American Architecture since 1945 and now is the 60th anniversary of that important show!

“This period of self-questioning, exploration, and complex political shifts also saw the emergence of the notion of Latin America as a landscape of development, one in which all aspects of cultural life were colored in one way or another by this new attitude to what emerged as the “Third World.” The 1955 exhibition featured the result of a single photographic campaign, but Latin America in Construction: Architecture 1955–1980 brings together a wealth of original materials that have never before been brought together and, for the most part, are rarely exhibited even in their home countries.”
(Quated from MoMA)

As mentioned in a review from The New York Times, from Cuba to Chile, Mexico to Argentina, cities in the region boomed. The task of providing everybody with homes ultimately proved unmanageable: proliferating slums outpaced new construction; poverty rose. Even so, what got built through the 1970s in places like Havana and Buenos Aires, Mexico City and Lima included some of the most inspired architecture of the modern age.

The Bank of London and South America in Buenos Aires. Photo from Metropolis.
The National School of Plastic Arts in Havana. Photo from Metropolis
Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer's Plaza of the Three Powers in Brasilia
Plaza of the Three Powers in Brasilia. Photo from architectmagazine
Miguel Rodrigo Mazuré’s project for a hotel in Machu Picchu (1969). Photo from Metropolis
Rogelio Salmona. Torres del Parque Residencial Complex, Bogotá, Colombia, 1964-1970. Photograph: Leonardo Finotti © Leonardo Finotti. Click above to see larger image.
Torres del Parque Residencial Complex, Colombia. Photo from Metalocus.

The exhibition’s goal, said curator Barry Bergdoll, is to “reinsert Latin America into our history of modernism and modernization in architecture.”

The collection covers every aspect of Modernism – diagrid skycrapers, abstract landscapes, megastructures, cities of slabs and we can admire a broad range of works, including urban planning, innovations in housing (both individual and multi-unit), university design, and civic and public spaces. More than 500 original works are on display—many shown for the first time—and include drawings, models, archival films, and photographs.

Latin America in Construction
Model of Headquarters for the Banco de Londres y América del Sur, Buenos Aires (1966) by Clorinda Testa and SEPRA Arquitectos. Photo from Archidose.
Latin America in Construction
Model of Edificio Altolar, Caracas (1966) by Jimmy Alcock. Photo from Archidose.
Latin America in Construction
Project for the first city in Antarctica (1980-83) by Amancio Williams. Photo from Archidose

As one of the leading manufacturer and supplier in the production of metal products, Shanghai Metal Corporation provides first class products and services in building materials. Check out our main products such as container houses, fasteners, steel grating, roofing materials and steel building.  Feel free to contact us for any question, our English-speaking staff will be more than glad to help you. Don’t forget to follow us on social media to get the latest update of our products and offers.

Sources : The New York Times, Archdaily, Architect Magazine, MoMA, Metalocus, Architectural Record

    

Ayu P.//SMC Editor

The History of Containers – When It All Began

Today, Shanghai Metal Corporation brings you back in time. Are you ready to take-off? Please fasten your seat belt, sit back, relax, and enjoy the flight. This is the story of containers.

The first stop of this journey is 1936 in Hoboken, New Jersey. The idea of containers, considered by many as “revolutionary”, must be attributed to Malcom McLean. As often is the case, the greatest ideas come in times of crisis. The Economist has described McLean’s early life as follows.

“He was a farmer’s son, one of seven children. His first business transaction was selling eggs for his mother, taking a small commission. But in the 1930s, the time of the Great Depression, farming was one of the worst-hit industries. Mr McLean got a job at a petrol station and saved enough money to buy a secondhand lorry, calling himself, grandly, the McLean Trucking Company. He did well enough to buy five more lorries, hired drivers for them, but continued to drive himself“.

Malcom-Mclean-History
from http://www.intra-plus.com

By observing how the loads of cotton were moved by the trucks of his company to the hold of the ship, McLean thought of using a fixed size “metal box” that could contain the voluminous material making the operations easier. Few years later, this insight would have proved to be revolutionary. Indeed, the “new container”, in addition to speed up the operations of loading and unloading, contributed to decrease transportation costs and to avoid the thefts committed in ports.

primer-container-historia-malcom-mclean
from investorsconundrum.com

According to The Economicst, the Ideal X was the first cargo ship transporting containers. It was an elderly oil tanker “whose deck had been strengthened to accommodate 58 well-filled boxes each some 30ft (9 metres) long”. It was on April 26, 1956, when the Ideal X left Newark for Port Hudson.

idealx
from people.hofstra.edu

According to Internazionale.it, McLean spent $0.16 per ton loaded, while the average cost of goods shipped at that time was $83 per ton. Moreover, from 1966 to 1983 the percentage of countries that used them has risen from 1 to 90 percent. The Economist claims that McLean was celebrated as the “man of the century” and the inventor of “the greatest advance in packaging since the paper bag”. Moreover, former United States President Bill Clinton said that containerisation helped to “fuel the world’s economy”.

idealx-300x2471
from eaves.ca

Remember! Shanghai Metal Corporation provides you with a great selection of container houses. Visit our website and do not hesitate to contact us.

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Stefano// SMC Editor

The Stained Glass Industry Needs Copper Foil

The art of stained glass as existed since the Antiquity. One of the most famous and ancient usage of copper for artistic glass was done by the Egyptian. The glass craftsmen of Ancient Egypt use copper to give a bright and beautiful green and blue tone to the pieces.

During the 19th and 20th century that copper was added to the work pieces of religious glass art.  To obtain a dark red, crimson like effect very high concentrated copper was including in the glass staining process. This process allowed the early Christian glass stained craftsmen to perform their art in order to create the masterpieces of their time.

Nowadays, artisans, artists and craftsmen of stained glass use a different kind of copper to embellish their pieces. Copper foil tape is now applied directly to the glass, allowing artists to get more flexibility in the shape and taint of the material. Indeed, by changing the chemical composition of the alloy, the copper’s color can go from a pale grayish tone to a dark crimson red.

 

As an international manufacturer and supplier for copper foil and copper foil tape, Shanghai Metal Corporation produces its products to fit your specific copper requirements. To find out more, please visit our Website or send your inquiry here. Our English speaking personnel will be more than pleased to help you. Follow us on  LinkedInTwitter, FacebookInstagram and don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel. Or you could try our new mobile app by scanning our QR code.

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Sources : Substances Used in the Making of Coloured Glass 1st.glassman.com (David M Issitt). Retrieved 3 August 2006

Photos from Google Image

Nicolas D.//SMC Editor

 

The Evolution of Bridge

The bridge is used to provide a way over an obstacle, such as water, valley or road. Its size differs according to its destination, it can be used to cross a river or even from one city to another. In some cases, it may symbolize an important point in your life. According to Freud, a bridge may symbolize any sort of transition in the dreamer’s life, for example, moving to a foreign country, changing from a job to another, etc. In this article, we are going to focus about the physical-real-life bridge. Let us see how bridges have evolved throughout the human history and how ancient bridges show us that structure theory is not the only vital factor in the realization of building construction.

We can divide the evolution of bridge technology into 2 eras :

1. The Arch Era

The Arch Era goes from 2000 BC until the end if the 18th century. Arc bridges were well developed by the  Romans and were for the majority stone arches. The Viaduct in Segovia, for example, is over 2000 years old and is still intact until today.

Roman Viaduct in Segovia

We can also find another example of ancient stone bridge in China. The elegant Zhao Zhou Bridge were built around 600 AD and can still be used until today.

Zhao Zhou Bridge

Another famous ancient bridge still in use today is the Siosepol Bridge in Iran, built during the Safavid Dynasty (around 16th Century).

Siosepol Bridge

These bridges were built before the appearance of structural theory. The ancestors of engineer didn’t use theory to guide their design. The type of  bridge structure they used (still used until today) was intuitive and their construction materials were readily available in nature. Stone arches have a very wonderful structures and  blend very well into the natural landscape.

2. The Contemporary Era

This modern era goes from the 19th Century until today. The construction of bridge changed after the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century, with the introduction of steel.

One of the most spectacular early bridge is the Firth of Fourth Bridge in London, built during the end of the 19th Century. Some may not be fond of its structures but it has been successfully serving its objective until now.


Firth of Fourth Bridge

Other steel bridges were built around the same time in the United States, such as, the St. Louis Bridge and the Brooklyn Bridge

The improvement of wire technology with steel allowed  long span suspension bridges possible. Research in aerodynamics offered a way to design bridges with wind resistant. Some early examples of this type of bridge are the Golden Gate Bridge and the George Washington Bridge. One of the longest one today is the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge.


Akashi Kaikyo Bridge

Another type of Contemporary Era bridge is the cable-stayed bridge. Attempts were not successful before high strength steel was available. Since 1970, many long cable-stayed bridge were completed around the world, such as The Stromsund Bridge in Sweden and the Normandy Bridge in France. One of the newest is the Stonecutters Bridge in Hong Kong, completed in 2009.


Stonecutters Bridge

As we can see from these examples, the availability of construction materials is a dominant factor in the evolution of bridge (stone, steel,…). Bridges are one of the most important infrastructure program in China. Shanghai Metal Corporation supply various steel bridges & steel bridge materials. Check our website if you’re interested other construction materials. You can also send us your inquiry, we have English-speaking that will help you to find the best product for you. Don’t forget to follow us on social media and download an application by scanning QR code below.

Read this article for a more detailed information about the evolution of bridge technology.

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Pictures from Google image.

Ayu P.//SMC editor

Do you like Chinese hotpot?

Going to China and not trying Chinese hotpot is like going to Paris and not seeing Eiffel Tower. There are many kinds of hotpot in China, Sichuan spicy hotpot, Yunnan mushroom hotpot, Beijing style hotpot, Guangdong hotpot or Mongolian hotpot.

There is a legend about hotpot that dates back to 1,700 years. Genghis Khan, the father of Mongols, exhausted during the blood battle ordered his cook to prepare a meal for him. Despite the fact that cook found just some sheep on the battlefield, Genghis Khan told him to slice up their meat, boil it in water and serve it up with a variety of tasty sauces. Khan after eating his meal recovered his energy and went to the battle to win. Since that time Mongolian hotpot has become very popular and started to spread across China as well.

Datong, a Chinese city in Shanxi province with a history of more than 2,300 years, is famous for producing a traditional copper hotpot. They have an old saying : “Worship the Buddhas at Wutai Mountains and buy copperware in Datong.”

The Datong hotpot has six parts base plate, fire base, pot, lid of the pot, copper chimney, lid of chimney and it is shaped as a tower around 12 inches high. The inside of a copper pot is coated with tin, it acts as a disinfectant and retains the original taste of food. The production itself is divided into six parts : formation, welding, lining with tin, chisel carving, polishing , assembling and it requires excellent skills of casting, designing and carving. Designs on the pots are very unique, for example dragon playing with phoenix (symbolizing love between man and woman), magpies on plum tree, Eight Immortals etc.

A man making a copper pot

There were many wars in Datong, as it is a border city. so the art of making copper hotpots was handed down just by oral teaching and there are not any exact historical documents about making hotpots in this area. However hotpot is still a favourite dish not only for Chinese people.

Shanghai Metal Corporation sells high-quality tin coated copper strip, copper sheet plate or other copper products. For more information please visit our website or send us inquiry. English speaking staff will gladly help you to find the most suitable product for you. Download also a new application by scanning QR code below or follow us on Social Media.

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Silvia M.//SMC Editor

Read more articles written by this author here.

Credits : flavorandfortune.com, gbtimes.com, traditions.cultural-china.com, googleimages.com

Do You Know How The UK Coins Are Made And What Are They Made of?

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The processes involved in producing a coin can be broken down into three different sections: making the blanks, making the dies and striking the coins.

Making the blanks

Depending on the alloy required, the appropriate metals are melted in the necessary proportions in a furnace. The metal is then extracted from the furnace in the form of a continuous strip, which is cut to produce coils weighing up to 2.8 tonnes. The strip is passed through powerful rolling mills to reduce it to the thickness of a coin. Blank discs of metal are then punched from the strip in a blanking press at a rate of up to 10,000 a minute. Rolling metal under great pressure makes it hard so the blanks have to be softened, something which is achieved by heating them in an annealing furnace at up to 950°C.

Making the dies

Once a design has been approved, a plaster model is prepared at several times the diameter of the intended coin. The plaster model is scanned by a ruby-tipped probe which records the design as a digital file on a computer. Guided by this digital file, an engraving machine cuts the design into a piece of steel at the correct size of the coin. Known as a reduction punch, this piece of steel is then used to make the dies which will actually strike the coins.

Striking the coins

For the final stage of the process, the blanks are fed into a coining press containing a pair of dies. Applying a pressure of around 60 tonnes, the dies strike the blanks and turn them into coins at speeds of up to 850 a minute.

= 1 penny coin =

First Issued February 15, 1971

Diameter 20.3mm

Weight 3.56g

Thickness Bronze: 1.52mm. Copper-plated steel: 1.65mm

Composition Bronze (97pc copper, 2.5pc zinc, 0.5pc tin)

image

= 2 pence coin =

First Issued February 15, 1971

Diameter 25.9mm

Weight 7.12g

Thickness Bronze: 1.85mm. Copper-plated steel: 2.03mm

Composition Bronze (97pc copper, 2.5pc zinc, 0.5pc tin)

image

= 5 pence coin =

First Issued Smaller version in June 1990.

Diameter 18.0mm

Weight 3.25g

Thickness 1.7mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

image

= 10 pence coin =

First Issued Smaller version in September 1992.

Diameter (since 1992) 24.5mm

Weight 6.5g

Thickness 1.85mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

image

= 20 pence coin =

First Issued June 9, 1982

Diameter 21.4mm

Weight 5g

Thickness 1.7mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (84pc copper, 16c nickel)

image

= 50 pence coin =

First Issued Smaller version introduced in September 1997. Diameter (since 1997) 27.3mm

Weight 8.0g

Thickness 1.78mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

image

= 1 pound coin =

Issue Date April 21, 1983

Diameter 22.5mm

Weight 9.5g

Thickness 3.15mm

Composition Nickel-Brass (70pc copper, 5.5pc nickel, 24.5pc zinc)

image

= 2 pound coin =

First Issued June 15, 1998

Diameter 28.4mm

Weight 12g

Thickness 2.5mm

Composition, Outer Nickel-Brass (76pc copper, 4pc nickel, 20pc zinc). Inner Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

image

= 5 pound coin =

First Issued August 4, 1990. Previously crowns had a face value of 25p

Diameter 38.61mm

Weight 28.28g

Thickness 2.89mm

Composition Cupro-nickel (75pc copper, 25pc nickel)

Collector versions have been struck in precious metals

image

As an international manufacturer and supplier for copper sheet and bronze sheet, Shanghai Metal Corporation produces slitting, edging, and oscillates winding to fit your specific copper requirements. To find out more, please visit our Website or send your inquiry here. Our English speaking personnel will be more than pleased to help you. Follow us on  LinkedInTwitter, FacebookInstagram and don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel. Or you could try our new mobile app by scanning our QR code.

Sources: Royal Mint, The Telegraph, museumvictoria.com.au

William P.//SMC Editor

Read more articles by this author here.

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How Much Do You Know About Copper?

1.Pyramid of Cheops

The first point of facts about copper is related to pyramids of Cheops. There were water pumping construction found by the archaeologists in this pyramid which was made partly from copper dated more than 5000 years ago.

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2.Dead Sea Scrolls

When people Sea Scrolls, they will think that the classic items are made from animal skin. This principle does not apply in one of the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in Israel. It is created by using copper. In the scroll, you will see the clues to find the hidden treasure.

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3.New York’s Statue of Liberty

One of the materials used to construct the statue of Liberty is copper. It features 80 tons of copper from Norway. The craftsmanship was done in France.

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4.Gold

When people want to get firm and tough gold, the manufacturer will add small amount copper. The train of gold is soft so that you can mould this material using your hands. Even though your jewelry is made from 24 k of gold, it still contains some copper.

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5.Hieroglyphs

Copper was believed as the symbol of the eternal life. In the hieroglyph system, the ancient Egyptian people utilized the ankh symbol to represent copper.

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6.Columbus

Columbus is one of the greatest sailors and explorers in the world. When he made a voyage to America, his ship was protected by using copper skin which eliminate the bio-fouling or even barnacles.

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7.Copper cookware

Copper is the best material recommended by most high class chefs in the world. The material can transfer the heat better than any other material.

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8.Copper products

Copper is widely used as the construction and frame in water piping and distribution since it can resist from any bacteria. Some products made from copper include handrail, door knobs and finger-plates.

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9.Copper tools

Copper is also helpful to lower the risk of explosion. The tools or products made from copper will never cause any fire or even spark. That’s why the electronic tools are made by using this material to prevent the explosion to occur.

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10.Anti corrosion

Copper can last longer and it prevents corrosion to form. The nuclear authority in Sweden and deep sea exploration uses copper as the protection for their equipment and pipework.

As an international manufacturer and supplier for copper sheet and bronze sheet, Shanghai Metal Corporation produces slitting, edging, and oscillates winding to fit your specific copper requirements. To find out more, please visit our Website or send your inquiry here. Our English speaking personnel will be more than pleased to help you. Follow us on  LinkedInTwitter, FacebookInstagram and don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel. Or you could try our new mobile app by scanning our QR code.

Source and photo credit: findfast.org, periodictable.com

William P.//SMC Editor

Read more articles by this author here.

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